Sort by :
Filter by :
- its good that more players are entering the market and making it more competitive..
Customers will have more options to choose from and good quality product ,wider varieties..CommentQuote0Flag
- HIL Limited to focus on green building material segment
HYDERABAD: CK Birla group company Hyderabad Industries Limited will be sharpening focus on green building materials to boost revenues from eco-friendly products and bring down the contribution of asbestos products as part of its revenues, said a top official of the company here. The asbestos segment currently accounts for 80% of the company's total turnover.
HIL managing director Abhaya Shankar said, "We are planning to expand our green building material portfolio. Every year we aim to improve the revenue contribution made by the green building materials segment by about 5%. Currently green building materials contribute 20% while the asbestos accounts for 80% of our revenues."
The gross revenue in 2011-12 was at Rs 950 crore and we are looking to grow at 15% per annum in future, Shankar said.
The company will add 1 lakh cubic meter capacity to its AAC block ( autoclaved aerated concrete, which is a lightweight building material) plant in Surat that has an existing capacity of 2 lakh cubic meter per annum.
Meanwhile, the company said it has partnered with shramika educational society for conducting employability sustainable programs for 250 people around the country. These people would be trained in the artisan courses and eventually absorbed by HIL or its franchises, company human resources vice president Sanjay V Kavathalkar said.
HIL Limited to focus on green building material segment - The Times of IndiaCommentQuote1Flag
- Residents grow vegetable gardens on balconies
GURGAON: With Gurgaon's highrise condominiums and space constraint, having a kitchen garden for chemical-free fruits and vegetables seems like a far-fetched idea. However, over a hundred gardening enthusiasts in the city have shown that owning an organic kitchen garden is actually achievable. Members of the Gurgaon chapters of All India Kitchen Garden Association (AIKGA), these women are displaying their love for plants by turning their terraces/balconies and small spaces in their houses into small kitchen garden.
"The idea behind starting these chapters in Gurgaon was to grow organic food in your own kitchen gardens and educate people on the same. There has been a rising awareness about organic food among people in the past few years unlike earlier. At least they know that whatever vegetable they are growing at home are pesticides free," says Seema Sud, convener of the DLF chapter of AIKGA who has over 100 potted plants in her balcony. AIKGA has two more chapters in Gurgaon namely the Sushant Lok chapter and the Palam Vihar chapter. The main association is based in Delhi.
"In all we have 150 members in Gurgaon who have cultivated kitchen gardens at their homes and the numbers keep adding every year due to the increasing awareness among people about gardening," she added.
Hema Ganapati, a member of Gurgaon's DLF chapter of AIKGA, has turned her terrace into a kitchen garden with an assortment of potted vegetables like drumsticks, lemons, cherry tomatoes, chillies, spinach, lettuce leaves and various herbs like oregano, parsley, chives, basil and other leafy vegetables.
"Since I don't get good sun in the backside of my house or in front, I started my kitchen garden on the terrace. But terrace is not the only option. One can also have potted plants in a balcony where one can grow leafy vegetables like palak, methi, bathua, mint, broccoli, cherry tomatoes, chilies, brinjal and herbs to start with. If you don't have that space also then you can grow some of them and regular salads like table radish, lettuce leaves etc in the baskets and hang them," says Ganapati, who joined AIKGA's DLF chapter when it was started in 1994.
"One can also go for vines on the wall and grow vegetable like bitter gourd (karela), beans and some varieties of tomatoes among others," she added.
The AIKGA members meet once a month where they invite experts to talk on various topics related to gardening such as information on seasonal flowers and vegetables, what soil/seed to use and how to take care of plant in summers among others.
To start with the AIKGA members are given a basic training course on gardening for nine days by horticulture experts who teach them how to know their soil and make it for the plants they want in their garden besides giving other basic information on starting a kitchen garden. "People are moving to flats for various reasons like security, better facilities etc. For them space for a kitchen garden becomes a constraint. To help cultivate a kitchen garden have balcony and terrace garden courses for them," said Sud.
"We keep reading every now and then on how vegetables and fruits are injected with chemicals and when it comes to leafy vegetables, people are more sensitive about those being infected by chemicals. But these are the vegetables that one can grow in potted plants in the house and given a chance one would do that. AIKGA gives you that guidance, a push and a little support that is needed to make a start," said Sector-43 resident Roliee Anshuman, a member of Sushant Lok chapter of AIKGA, who uses her balcony to grow potted vegetables like spinach, green chillies, bottle gourd, mint and coriander among others.
Various melas and shows are organized by the AIKGA members in the city as per seasons where they invite nurseries to come and participate. "These melas and shows are aimed at making available all the seeds, pots, manure and baskets to members. Besides members also share their plants and seeds among each other and recommend few nurseries where one can get good quality seeds and manure," said Ganapati.
Ganapati says the best thing about having your own kitchen garden is that you are getting chemical free vegetables as you use all organic fertilizer. "When you start growing your own vegetables you will know the difference in what you get from the market and what you have grown in your garden or potted plants. Every season you will have something to grow. Besides it is a joy to see your plants grow. Kitchen gardening acts as a very good stress buster as well," she smiles.
Residents grow vegetable gardens on balconies - The Times of IndiaCommentQuote2Flag
- Ventilated facades: Aesthetic and hi-tech
The advent of automatic fastening systems has completely transformed the concept of ceramic coverings on exteriors. Ventilated facades are currently regarded as the most effective, safest system for installing ceramic tiles on facades, providing a building with numerous aesthetic as well as technical advantages.
Ventilated facades are a complex, multi-layer structural solution that enables "dry" installation of ventilated walls. This reduces the amount of heat that buildings absorb in hot weather conditions due to partial reflection of solar radiation. The heat is absorbed by the covering, the ventilated air gap and the application of an insulating material. This in turn helps in achieving considerable reduction in the costs of air conditioning. In winter, ventilated walls manage to retain heat, resulting in savings in terms of heating.
This is developed to protect buildings against the combined action of rain and wind by counterbalancing the effects of water beating on walls and keeping the building dry. This is offered with high level aesthetic characteristics and undisputed advantages of heat insulation and sound proofing.
This also protects the buildings, giving considerable advantages of wall durability over time and energy, especially where tall, exceptionally exposed, isolated buildings are concerned.
Some advantages that the ventilated wall offers are:
* Elimination of the risk of cracked covering.
* Elimination of the risk of detachment from the wall.
* Protection of the facade against the direct action of atmospheric agents.
* Elimination of surface condensation (the presence of an air gap facilitates evacuation of water stream from the interior and promotes the removal of possible moisture).
* Lasting efficiency of the outer insulating material, which is kept perfectly dry.
* Easy ventilated wall installation regardless of the climactic conditions.
* Maintenance and work can be carried out on individual porcelain tile.
* Creation of a technical working space for pipe and duct housing.
* Ventilation is much more effective when applied to the entire facade and, for this reason the air gap needs to be carefully dimensioned for perfect intake and discharge.
Installation too has been made easy. It consists of several parts assembled "dry" during installation with no need for adhesives, using mechanical anchoring and fixing devices, enabling quick installation with minimum maintenance.
Ventilated facades: Aesthetic and hi-tech - Indian ExpressCommentQuote1Flag
- Combating effects of radiation
The presence of harmful radiation in buildings and construction sites has been a cause of concern for the residents as well as workers and this has increased the need for radiation management. Synergy Environics is a company that is providing solutions in this regard for better health of people living and working in a space, and also for improving productivity in organisations. Pranav Poddar, Director, Synergy Environics, shares information about the new technology in an interaction. Excerpts:
What is the genesis of Environics?
Environics is a science and a practice that looks at energy flows and the presence of radiations in any built environment. It then prescribes non-intrusive solutions to ensure that the environment where one lives or works is positive and in sync with the earth’s natural energy flows for better health and productivity. The science of detection of geopathic stresses (earth’s natural sources) has been in existence for over 40 years now.
What are principles on which this is based?
The practice of detection of earth’s natural source of radiations is based on the principles of Geomancy and Geo-biology. The entire process of detection and correction of radiations and their harmful impact is carried out scientifically with instrumentation. One of the instruments used for detection of radiations is known as “Lecher Antenna”, which was developed by a scientist — Ernst Lecher in Austria in the 1960s.
How does it ward off radiation?
The harmful effects of geopathic radiations are corrected by placing special chips at the two ends of any single geopathic stress line or on the intersection of two geopathic stress lines. These chips change the nature of energy being emitted by a particular source of geopathic stress. The harmful effects of microwave radiations are corrected by fixing an Enviro Chip on the device emitting that radiation at certain strategic positions. These chips change the constant nature of waveforms emitted by those devices to a random nature, which is compatible with the human body.
What services does your company provide?
Our company is in the field of providing radiation management solutions. We have services to detect and correct the impact of geopathic stresses and radiations from certain building materials which cause harm to the health of the occupants of a building. Our company is also producing a product which when fixed on a particular device ( phone, laptop, desktop PC, etc) neutralises the harmful impact of microwave radiations emitted from these devices. Recently, our company has also introduced a Health Awareness and Diagnostic Programme, where a full body scan is carried out in 10 minutes through a machine which has been imported from USA.
Which are the projects you have worked on?
Since the year 2005 when the company was formed, we have implemented our services in more than 1,000 establishments. These include 10 oil refineries, 5 steel plants, 5 power plants, 3 airports, many industries, oifices, Institutions, homes, etc. Out of 3,000 people whose feedback has been received, more than 50 per cent have shown improvement in health and interpersonal relationships, and more than 70 per cent industries have shown better productivity and growth.
How much does radiation management cost?
The cost of implementing this technology is probably one-tenth the cost of painting one’s establishment. We charge on a per sq.ft basis and the cost ranges between Rs 2.00-12.50 per sq.ft, depending upon the area of the establishment. The larger the area, the lower the cost per sq.ft. — TNSCommentQuote1Flag
- Can your house withstand the fury of monsoon?
In this era of 24x7 news channels, it is not possible that you would have missed the hair-raising visuals of fury of torrential rain in Uttrakhand and Himachal Pradesh. Even though the region generally gets moderate to heavy rainfall during the monsoon season, very little is done to protect and prepare buildings from the harmful effects of heavy rain. It is advisable to take precautionary measures to protect your house, apartment or building during the rainy season.
A common problem during monsoon is water stagnation, cracks in building, power cuts, leakage etc. Experts say that in order to prevent seepage through walls during monsoon, the terrace wall surface should have a gentle slope towards the inner side of the building. This will cause the water to flow onto the terrace instead of flowing along the wall’s outer surface to the ground. “If you have a large balcony or an open sit-out area, ensure that rainwater doesn’t stand for longer periods at these places. This is more important particularly when you have marble flooring at these locations. The gradual action of slightly acidic rainwater may discolour, damage or even eat away the costly marble,” says Deepak Mehta, a noted architect.
If you are looking at fixing that leaking ceiling or crack in the wall, now is the best time to do it. “ One should fix the leaks and cracks in buildings before monsoon. There are a few areas in your apartment that require regular maintenance”, says Ajay Agarwal, Director of Avalon Developers.
If we talk about the terrace, care should be taken to provide proper slopes on the slab to prevent stagnation of water. All opened-up tile joints have to be filled with a polymer — modified waterproof mortar and sealed. Damaged tiles have to be replaced with new ones. Water has a tendency to take the weaker path and the entry of water from the terrace of even the 9th or 10th floor can cause leakage in the ground floor or any other floor of a building. Also, leakage may take place through cracks on the top and sides of the parapet walls leading to entry of water into the building.
It has often been observed that roofs start leaking after couple of days of heavy rain. Mainly residents of apartments face this problem. If you live on the top floor, there are strong chances that your roof starts leaking as rain water stagnates there. Terrace floor should be leveled by applying cement plaster. “If you see or find cracks in the roof slab, ensure that these are properly covered”, says Sanjay Khanna,director of Kailash Nath Projects Pvt.Ltd.
Terrace has to be cleaned regularly. Debris that gets collected there may block the pipes. You can also take up cleaning of water tanks, chajja, terrace and filling of cracks and separation gaps.
If your house is fitted with a solar water heater and if you have observed improper heating, then it is time to get the solar panel inspected. It is very important to maintain lift or elevator regularly for the safety of residents in the apartments.CommentQuote1Flag
- Time to plan parking areas
Provision for ample parking space has emerged as one of the major challenges for urban palnners as well as builders. The challenge is much greater in the tricity as it has the distinction of having the highest number of vehicles per capita and is severely short of parking space. Internal roads, parking slots and open parking areas in buildings and even open spaces now remain clogged with vehicles. Even though Chandigarh falls in the category of class III cities in terms of population, it is among the richest cities of Asia with a high per capita income.
It has 4.4 lakh vehicles per 1,000 km, which is almost twice as much in Delhi, where the number is 2.4 lakh. Further, the city has 878 vehicles per 1,000 persons as compared to 362 in Delhi. Such high vehicle density in the city is creating problems like the lack of parking space and air pollution among other things. In 1991, Chandigarh had over 2.58 lakh vehicles registered. That figure has crossed the 8-lakh mark now.
In Chandigarh 73 per cent of travel is through personal vehicles. The increased vehicle concentration has increased the need for concepts like multi-level and stilt parking systems.
These concepts have been adopted and have solved the parking problem to some extent in new projects.
Nowadays every township and residential complex is opting for stilt parking or else you can see rows of parking lanes outside the houses. People are ready to pay extra parking fee, while purchasing land to avoid parking woes later. Built-up apartments, flats, residential complexes also charge money for parking of vehicles which is included in the apartment cost. Stilt, open and basement are the common parking solutions provided.
Punjab government has tried to tackle this issue effectively by adding new clauses in the state’s new housing policy which is likely to be notified shortly. The proposed norms for group housing projects are:
* 1.5 ECS (Equivalent car space) per DU with unit area up to 1,200 sq. ft; 2.0 ECS per DU with unit area between 1,200 and 3,000 sq. ft and 3 ECS for units above 3,000 sq ft area.
* Additional 10 per cent guest parking shall also be provided.
* Separate multi-level parking block maximum up-to 20 per cent of the plot area is permissible and such area shall not be counted towards FAR.
* In case parking is provided under stilts, it shall not be counted towards FAR and height.
For the provision of car parking spaces, the space standards shall be as under or as amended from time to time:
* For open parking 23 sq m per equivalent car space.
* For ground floor covered parking 28 sq m per equivalent car spaces.
* For basement 32 sq m per equivalent car space.
The proposed housing policy will definitely give some relief to tackle the parking problem in cities like Ludhiana, Amritsar and Mohali.
Soon the time is approaching for multi-level parking and stacked parking (mechanical) in residential complexes also like in metros. But this is ghoing to add more zeroes to the cost of an flat/apartment.
The new projects in tricity will definitely be planned with underground parking and multi-level parking. With rapid urbanisation and infrastructural growth there is no denying the fact that over the next few years hydraulic parking systems or stacked parking will be the only option left in the residential complexes like in big commercial complexes.CommentQuote1Flag
- Take a deep breath
Sick Building Syndrome is fast becoming a public health risk. How can we tackle this?
This is my fourteenth column and I’m happy to report that reader response has been good. I receive many emails from readers who are keen on reducing the toxic, chemical overload within their homes and are looking for safer and natural solutions.
We are now used to the idea of air pollution and smog in urban areas caused mainly by automobile emissions. However we have not fully woken up to the perils of our indoor air quality, both at home and in closed spaces like malls and offices. You will be surprised to read that your home and office’s toxic load can creep up in the most innocuous of ways.
An estimate of your home’s indoor air quality (IAQ) can prove to be a shocker. This is now being measured consistently in western countries where citizens spend close to 90 per cent of their time indoors. It is also beginning to show up in studies in India, where it is estimated that close to 70 per cent of our time is spent indoors (either at work or at home).
The inside of our homes and offices are not the haven we assume them to be – in many cases, standing outdoors, even in hot and humid weather is healthier.
International standards for appropriate IAQ have been established by countries like the U.S, Canada and Sweden after extensive studies. Poor indoor air quality leads to a poorer sense of well-being and can illnesses like blocked nose, irritable eyes, headaches, dizziness, dry skin, lethargy, fatigue and so on. The level of escalation of symptom varies according to age, gender, and basic health parameters of the individual. These ailments are collectively called “sick building syndrome”.
Poor indoor air quality is now recognised as an important public health risk all over the world. Indoor hazards include biological and chemical contaminants that arise from direct use (chemicals used in cleaning the home, aerosol sprays to deter insects, use of synthetic personal products), contaminants from products used to improve interiors (chemical fragrances used to improve mood or aesthetics), and contaminants that are a by product of the furniture in the home and office (notably formaldehyde from MDF-based furniture). Apart from this, poor lighting and poor ergonomic building design also play a part in contributing to the building and people sicknesses.
Researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Sciences in the U.S report that people who use air fresheners or other household cleaning products which are delivered through an aerosol spray as little as once a week experience reduced heart rate variability – a condition linked to heart attacks and high blood pressure.
Household chemicals cause 7 million accidental poisonings each year in the U.S with more than 75 per cent of the cases involving a child under six years. In India, not only is this number not estimated, our current BIS norms impose only voluntary standards on non-food and non-electronic household products. So you would not be able to find out exactly what your floor cleaner or dish wash product actually contains, even if you were curious.
We also do not have any specific regulations that limit harmful chemicals in most household products. Almost all regulations are process and not product regulations. So a factory which creates bleaching products needs to comply with pollution control norms for its effluents but the chemical composition of the product that it manufactures for household use is largely unregulated.
To understand the scale of the problem considers this information. Procter & Gamble, a leading worldwide manufacturer of household products, declares on its website that it uses 642 different types of chemicals just to create the fragrances used in its products! All of these chemicals are compounds created in the factory only in the last few decades and therefore it is impossible for us to get a clear picture of their safety for human use which happens only over several generations. Contrast this with the use of neem or turmeric which has thousands of years of recorded safety for human use.
This series will therefore explore several non toxic alternatives to the cleaning products we use at home, in order to help us lighten its toxic load. We will also explore natural, environmentally-sustainable alternatives to household furniture and accessories.
Take a deep breath - The HinduCommentQuote1Flag
- Technology adding wings to Smart Homes
Smart homes in India are coming up with a plethora of new technologies and have begun to find their ways into homes not owned by the richest exclusively. Technology vendors and real-estate players from different domains have started developing solutions capable of being easily integrated into home-environments. IP based technologies are making substantial strides in the area of ‘smart-home’.
“Smart homes may come at a marginal premium due to the functional technology features bundled in. Owing to a busy lifestyle, the new-age customer demands the latest in technology including security products, home automation products, mood-lighting and scenario products that can be controlled by a phone or computer within the premises of the house or through remote access,” says Anjum Jung, Managing Partner, Morph Design Company.
Indrajit Kembhavi, Kembhavi Architecture foundation adds, “Trends include automated openings of gates, doors, etc through biometrics, retina sensors, video walls, and controlled shading devices like blinds, skylights based on climatic/weather intensity, smarter communication and crisis systems.”
Home networking and monitoring systems are the newest additions to the smart home products.
“These manage the integrated network between systems such as lighting, air conditioning, phones, security, TV’s, audio-video systems and computers. They not only allow communication between systems, they also produce reports on levels of energy consumption. This lets the owner decide what they can cut back on and will provide them with a measure of how much energy they consume. There have been some appliance level additions also which include air conditioners that can be turned on remotely through cell phones,” says Shiela Sriprakash, Founder, Shilpa Architects.
Rainwater harvesting systems, sewage treatment plant and organic waste converters ensure that smart homes are also green homes. Smart features are necessarily eco-friendly as they help in optimizing use of energy and water through controlled shading monitoring and motion sensors intelligent air conditioners and controlled shading devices do help in reduction of air conditioning load.
Venkat Chalasani, CEO, Samskruti Builders a company that works exclusively on green homes explains sustainability is an important factor. The reduce, reuse and recycle mantra, low carbon footprint, using ecologically sensitive material, sustainable water infrastructure and solar hot water are important aspects. Likewise health is another focus area with organic fresh food, indoor air quality, live walls and integrated landscaped built-up to reduce air and sound pollution.
“A resilient infrastructure that adapts to failures and addresses future needs/situations as well as connectivity to schools and hospitals as well as access to work/public transport are aspects that are integral to our projects,” says Chalasani.
The design of Tata Housing’s Promont property in Bangalore represents a bold new concept for urban living. Exploiting the dramatic natural topography of the site, over 400 individual units are organised with terraced villa units climbing the slopes and stepping up to the crest of the hill where, along the ridgeline, four stepping, landscaped apartment towers will sit within a lushly planted park.
“With views out over the surrounding areas this park serves to organise the common outdoor recreational amenity spaces. The property is designed in such a way that every structure and living unit is allowed a generous amount of daylight and natural ventilation. The development will be LEED certified at the platinum level by the Indian Green Building Council,” says Brotin Banerjee, MD & CEO, Tata Housing.
Likewise home accessories might be inexpensive but not that useful in terms of utility.
“Kitchen accessories have become an important part of modern kitchens. Invention of several kitchen accessories is best example of this fact that we are now slaves of technology. For the past few years the concept of a green or eco friendly kitchen has been one that is energy-efficient,” says Pooja Kejriwal of Home Collective.
The cost may be a deterrent, especially in the absence of a holistic growth of urban India but increasingly developers and home buyers are understanding the advantages of witching to smart living.
Technology adding wings to Smart Homes | Track2Realty || India's real estate e-newspaperCommentQuote0Flag
- The anatomy of a safe room inside your home?
As a concept, panic or safe rooms date back to ancient Egypt. Inside your house, a room like this can be used to protect you and your family from harm. While some think of them as money pits to placate the fears of rich and the paranoid, modern-day panic rooms are becoming increasingly popular among those desiring security in a dangerous world. If constructed properly, they are the unparalleled in providing safety. Hitesh Raj Bhagat tells you how:
Ventilation and HVAC
Ideally, the room should be air tight - no air gaps around the doors (construction specialists will know how to do this). This also means that staying for longer periods requires a system to keep the room warm/cool and to re-circulate fresh air.
Supplies Keep enough canned food, bottled water and some clothes handy. Other essential supplies include items like fl ashlights, fi rst aid equipment and basic self defence equipment.
Here's where costs can skyrocket; oxygen masks, oxygen tanks, night vision goggles, fl ares and weapons can all be bought for a fair chunk of cash.
If you're locked in, you need a way to call for help. In a panic situation, you may not have time to grab your cellphone, so a dedicated landline phone is essential.
Small chemical toilets are ideal for this purpose. If the panic room is being made while a house is being constructed, a small toilet can be built in too.
Walls and construction
Thick concrete walls are a must for a room like this - at least 8-inches thick, but they can also go up to 2 feet. Walls can also be lined with Kevlar and/or lead plates.
Grades of panic room
Is the room designed to only protect against intruders? What about storms, fl oods, terrorist attacks, nuclear blasts or chemical warfare? Depending on what the room is designed to do and for how long, a specialist needs to be Illustration: ARINDAM called to design and equip the room.
The anatomy of a safe room inside your home? - The Economic TimesCommentQuote1Flag
- Fire Resistant Building Material
The building where we spent our life should be strong enough to handle natural disaster like flood, earthquake and fire etc. Fire prevention can be done by using the guidelines given below.
Characteristics of Fire Fighting/Resistant Materials
The material used in building should be of such nature that it does not disintegrate under the effect of heat produced during fire.
The material should not expand due to heat also and should ensure stability of structure.
The nature of material used in building should have minimum contraction due to sudden cooling with water after the material is heated at high temperature.
The nature of material used in the building should be such that it does not catch fire easily.
Fire Resistant Properties of Building
It is a bad conductor of heat. Sand stone with fine grains can moderate fire successfully without having serious cracks. Granite is disintegrated when it receives heat from fire. Lime stone is easily crumbled by ordinary fire. Most of stones are disintegrated into small pieces when heated during fire and cooled afterwards.
Bricks are bad conductor of heat. They have no serious effect of heat until the temperature during fire rises above 1200 degrees to 1300 degrees. At the time of construction if good quality mortar is used and brick work constructed by skilled mason, brick masonry offers good resistance to fire.
This material is rarely used in building construction. Cast iron breaks into pieces when gets a normal temperature after getting heat during the fire. Care should be taken while using cast iron in the building that it should be covered either by brick work, cement concrete or any other fire resistant material.
It is good conductor of heat and it is heated quickly during fire. Steel bars looses its tensile strength, yields stress if it is heated above 600 degree centigrade during fire. Steel bars completely melt at a temperature of 1400 degree centigrade. During fire unprotected steel columns, beams etc. become unsafe due to high temperature and structure may fail. The paint on the surface of the steel items catches fire easily, keeping in the above problem fire resistant paint should be done on steel members.
Concrete is a bad conductor of heat and an effective material for fire resistant construction. It offers higher resistance to fire than any other material. The actual behavior of concrete in case of fire depends on quality of cement and type of aggregate which form concrete. In case of reinforced and pre-stressed structures, it also depends on the position of steel in concrete.
There is no loss of strength in concrete when it is heated up to 250 degrees centigrade. The reduction of strength starts when the temperature of fire increases beyond 250 degrees centigrade. Normally re-enforced concrete structure can resist fire for about one hour at the temperature of 1000 degrees centigrade without any serious damage. Hence cement concrete is widely used in fire resistant construction.
It is a poor conductor of heat and expends little during heating. Cracks are formed in glass when it is cooled after heating. Re-enforced glass with steel wire is more resistant to fire than ordinary glass. Re-enforced glass can resist sudden variation in temperature without forming cracks. Wired glass even if it breaks, keeps fractured glass in its original position.
Any structure made from timbers rapidly destroys in case of fire. Timber also enhances intensity of fire. As timber is bad conductor of heat if heavy section is used it may attain a high degree of fire resistance. To make timber more fire resistant, the surface of timber is coated with chemicals such as ammonium phosphate and soleplate, borax and boric acid. After doing treatment, the timber becomes more resistant to heat. Sometimes fire resistant paint is also applied on surface of the timber to protect it from heat.CommentQuote1Flag